What happened to the project 96. 1

what happened to the project 96. 1

Biosphere 2

Following YESTERDAY's format change at CCM+E Active Rocker WKLS (PROJECT )/ATLANTA to Top 40 as POWER (NET NEWS 8/29), the entire PROJECT . Nov 17,  · Project was led by Chris Williams, who previously ran alternative rock station 99X, which arrived in and sliced away part of the rock audience. (In , it became top 40 and is now Power )Author: Rodney Ho.

There will be no changes to other Yahoo properties or services, or your Yahoo account. You can projeft more information about the Yahoo Answers shutdown and how to download your data on this help page. Is anybody else super annoyed that project It got turned into a crappy pop station!

One whar the only two stations besides I went onto facebook and joined the "bring back the project" group, and was informed that I can barely pick up the signal, tp it keeps getting crossed over into other stations so it's hard to wwhat. So far, I have heard green day, 5 finger death punch and rise against on What I think I miss the most about the project besides the music is Kidd chris and the morning show!

It came prjoect a little while what happened to the project 96. 1 I woke up, so I could hear them until I got off the bus at school. From what I can piece together, Clear Channel decided to change the stations format because of revenue. The company didn't want to keep investing in rock radio for Atlanta because the station only targeted older listeners, and pop music targets a larger number of young adults.

That's why their signal is hard to pick up in most areas. I'm pissed off too! I freaking hate pop. My mom's friend called her this morning and said when she turned on the radio, she hapened like: "What the h-? It's complete bs!

No more Avenged Sevenfold, Godsmack, Disturbed, and many more! I hope they get a new station. Pop has enough stations!! It should never wwhat been able to be played on public radio, period! It certainly was not fit for kids riding a school bus to school!

It was so slimy and raunchy! What has happened to morals, values, projecr standards in America? Trending News. Amid grocery store boom, workers have suffered.

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Bringing home the bacon! Tweek M. Please, somebody explain why my beloved Project is dead!! Answer Save. Skeeball Lv 6. This What happened to the project 96. 1 Might Help You. RE: what happened to project My favorite radio station? How do you think about the answers? You can sign in to vote the answer. Sorry, but How to decorate the kitchen table wasn't making money so it was killed.

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Sep 04,  · UGH!!! tell me about it!!! i hate the fact that all the radio stations play the same songs over and over and over every hour!!! i was always listening to project just because it's the only ROCK radio station playing the good songs now all Atlanta has is pop music everywhere! Aug 30,  · Project Nearly sick after eating at popular fast food chain. Justin Bieber has opened up about his transformation from wild child to reformed character. In an interview with GQ magazine, the year-old singer spoke freely, revealing the extent of his drug problem and the development of his relationships with wife Hailey Baldwin and Christianity.

Biosphere 2 is an American Earth system science research facility located in Oracle, Arizona. Its mission is to serve as a center for research, outreach, teaching, and lifelong learning about Earth, its living systems, and its place in the universe.

It remains the largest closed system ever created. Constructed between and , Biosphere 2 was originally meant to demonstrate the viability of closed ecological systems to support and maintain human life in outer space [4] as a substitute for Earth's biosphere. It was designed to explore the web of interactions within life systems in a structure with different areas based on various biological biomes.

In addition to the several biomes and living quarters for people, there was an agricultural area and work space to study the interactions between humans, farming, technology and the rest of nature as a new kind of laboratory for the study of the global ecology. Its mission was a two-year closure experiment with a crew of eight humans "biospherians".

As an experimental ecological facility it allowed the study and manipulation of a mini biospheric system without harming Earth's biosphere. Its seven biome areas were a 1,square-meter 20, sq ft rainforest , an square-meter 9, sq ft ocean with a coral reef , a square-meter 4, sq ft mangrove wetlands, a 1,square-metre 14, sq ft savannah grassland, a 1,square-meter 15, sq ft fog desert , and two anthropogenic biomes: a 2,square-meter 27, sq ft agricultural system and a human habitat with living spaces, laboratories and workshops.

Below ground was an extensive part of the technical infrastructure. Heating and cooling water circulated through independent piping systems and passive solar input through the glass space frame panels covering most of the facility, and electrical power was supplied into Biosphere 2 from an onsite natural gas energy center.

Biosphere 2 was only used twice for its original intended purposes as a closed-system experiment: once from to , and the second time from March to September Both attempts, though heavily publicized, ran into problems including low amounts of food and oxygen, die-offs of many animals and plants included in the experiment though this was anticipated since the project used a strategy of deliberately "species-packing" anticipating losses as the biomes developed , group dynamic tensions among the resident crew, outside politics and a power struggle over management and direction of the project.

Nevertheless, the closure experiments set world records in closed ecological systems, agricultural production, health improvements with the high nutrient and low caloric diet the crew followed, and insights into the self-organization of complex biomic systems and atmospheric dynamics.

In June , during the middle of the second experiment, the managing company, Space Biosphere Ventures, was dissolved, and the facility was left in limbo. Columbia University assumed management of the facility in and used it to run experiments until It then looked in danger of being demolished to make way for housing and retail stores, but was taken over for research by the University of Arizona in The University of Arizona took full ownership of the structure in The Biosphere 2 project was launched in by businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass and systems ecologist John P.

Construction was carried out between and by Space Biosphere Ventures, a joint venture whose principal officers were John P. Dempster, director of system engineering, and Norberto Alvarez-Romo, vice president of mission control. It was named "Biosphere 2" because it was meant to be the second fully self-sufficient biosphere , after the Earth itself "Biosphere 1". The glass and spaceframe facility is located in Oracle, Arizona at the base of the Santa Catalina Mountains , about 50 minutes north of Tucson.

Its elevation is around 4, feet 1, m above sea level. The above-ground physical structure of Biosphere 2 was made of steel tubing and high-performance glass and steel frames.

The frame and glazing materials were designed and made to specification by a firm run by a one-time associate of Buckminster Fuller , Peter Jon Pearce Pearce Structures, Inc. During the day, the heat from the sun caused the air inside to expand and during the night it cooled and contracted.

To avoid having to deal with the huge forces that maintaining a constant volume would create, the structure had large diaphragms kept in domes called "lungs" or variable volume structures. Since opening a window was not an option, the structure also required a sophisticated system to regulate temperatures within desired parameters, which varied for the different biomic areas.

Though cooling was the largest energy need, heating had to be supplied in the winter and closed loop pipes and air handlers were key parts of the energy system. An energy center on site provided electricity and heated and cooled water, employing natural gas and backup generators, ammonia chillers and water cooling towers. The first closed mission lasted from September 26, to September 26, Calculations indicated that Biosphere 2's farm was amongst the highest producing in the world "exceeding by more than five times that of the most efficient agrarian communities of Indonesia, southern China, and Bangladesh.

They consumed the same low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet that Roy Walford had studied in his research on extending lifespan through diet. They showed the same improvement in health indices such as lowering of blood cholesterol, blood pressure, enhancement of immune system. Some of the domestic animals that were included in the agricultural area during the first mission included: four African pygmy goats and one billy goat; 35 hens and three roosters a mix of Indian jungle fowl Gallus gallus , Japanese silky bantam , and a hybrid of these ; two sows and one boar Ossabaw dwarf pigs ; and tilapia fish grown in a rice and azolla pond system originating millennia ago in China.

A strategy of "species-packing" was practiced to ensure that food webs and ecological function could be maintained if some species did not survive. The fog desert area became more chaparral in character due to condensation from the space frame. The savannah was seasonally active; its biomass was cut and stored by the crew as part of their management of carbon dioxide. Rainforest pioneer species grew rapidly, but trees there and in the savannah suffered from etiolation and weakness caused by lack of stress wood , normally created in response to winds in natural conditions.

Corals reproduced in the ocean area, and crew helped maintain ocean system health by hand-harvesting algae from the corals, manipulating calcium carbonate and pH levels to prevent the ocean becoming too acidic, and by installing an improved protein skimmer to supplement the algae turf scrubber system originally installed to remove excess nutrients. Biosphere 2, because of its small size and buffers, and concentration of organic materials and life, had greater fluctuations and more rapid biogeochemical cycles than are found in Earth's biosphere.

Many insects had been included in original species mixes in the biomes but a globally invasive tramp ant species, Paratrechina longicornis , unintentionally sealed in, had come to dominate other ant species. Much of the evidence for isolated human groups comes from psychological studies of scientists overwintering in Antarctic research stations.

Before the first closure mission was half over, the group had split into two factions and, according to Poynter, people who had been intimate friends had become implacable enemies, barely on speaking terms.

This is in contrast to other expeditions where internal frictions can lead to unconscious sabotage of each other and the overall mission. All of the crew felt a very strong and visceral bond with their living world. This intimate "metabolic connection" enabled the crew to discern and respond to even subtle changes in the living systems. That was the nature of the factionalism The factions inside the bubble formed from a rift and power struggle between the joint venture partners on how the science should proceed, as biospherics or as specialist ecosystem studies perceived as reductionist.

The faction that included Poynter felt strongly that increasing research should be prioritized over degree of closure. The other faction backed project management and the overall mission objectives. A majority of the SAC members chose to remain as consultants to Biosphere 2. Some sixty-four projects were included in the research program that Walford and Alling spearheaded developing.

Undoubtedly the lack of oxygen and the calorie-restricted, nutrient-dense diet [44] contributed to low morale. They considered that would be a project failure by definition. In November , the hungry Biospherians began eating seed stocks that had not been grown inside the Biosphere 2. This order was, however, never carried out. Poynter writes [47] that she simply decided to stay put, correctly reasoning that the order could not be enforced without effectively terminating the closure.

Isolated groups tend to attach greater significance to group dynamic and personal emotional fluctuations common in all groups.

Some reports from polar station crews exaggerated psychological problems. Biospherians intervened to control invasive plants when needed to preserve biodiversity, functioning as " keystone predators ". In addition, construction itself was a challenge; for example, it was difficult to manipulate the bodies of water to have waves and tidal changes.

All the technology was selected to minimize outgassing and discharge of harmful substances which might damage Biosphere 2's life. There was controversy when the public learned that the project had allowed an injured member to leave and return, carrying new material inside. The team claimed the only new supplies brought in were plastic bags, but others accused them of bringing food and other items. More criticism was raised when it was learned that, likewise, the project injected oxygen in January to make up for a failure in the balance of the system that resulted in the amount of oxygen steadily declining.

Odum noted: "The management process during — using data to develop theory, test it with simulation, and apply corrective actions was in the best scientific tradition. Yet some journalists crucified the management in the public press, treating the project as if it was an Olympic contest to see how much could be done without opening the doors". The oxygen inside the facility, which began at This is equivalent to the oxygen availability at an elevation of 4, metres 13, ft.

The oxygen decline and minimal response of the crew indicated that changes in air pressure are what trigger human adaptation responses. These studies enhanced the biomedical research program. Managing CO 2 levels was a particular challenge, and a source of controversy regarding the Biosphere 2 project's alleged misrepresentation to the public.

Daily fluctuation of carbon dioxide dynamics was typically ppm because of the strong drawdown during sunlight hours by plant photosynthesis , followed by a similar rise during the nighttime when system respiration dominated. As expected, there was also a strong seasonal signature to CO 2 levels, with wintertime levels as high as 4,—4, ppm and summertime levels near 1, ppm. The crew worked to manage the CO 2 by occasionally turning on a CO 2 scrubber , activating and de-activating the desert and savannah through control of irrigation water, cutting and storing biomass to sequester carbon , and utilizing all potential planting areas with fast-growing species to increase system photosynthesis.

The carbon precipitator could reverse the chemical reactions and thus release the stored carbon dioxide in later years when the facility might need additional carbon. Many suspected the drop in oxygen was due to microbes in the soil. Subsequent research showed that Biosphere 2's farm soils had reached a more stable ratio of carbon and nitrogen, lowering the rate of CO 2 release, by The respiration rate was faster than the photosynthesis possibly in part due to relatively low light penetration through the glazed structure and the fact that Biosphere 2 started with a small but rapidly increasing plant biomass resulting in a slow decrease of oxygen.

A mystery accompanied the oxygen decline: the corresponding increase in carbon dioxide did not appear. This concealed the underlying process until an investigation by Jeff Severinghaus and Wallace Broecker of Columbia University's Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory using isotopic analysis showed that carbon dioxide was reacting with exposed concrete inside Biosphere 2 to form calcium carbonate in a process called carbonatation , thereby sequestering both carbon and oxygen.

After Biosphere 2's first mission, extensive research and system improvements were undertaken, including sealing concrete to prevent the uptake of carbon dioxide. The second mission began on March 6, , with an announced run of ten months. The crew was Norberto Alvarez-Romo Capt. The second crew achieved complete sufficiency in food production. The project was put into receivership and an outside management team was installed for the receiver to turn around the floundering project.

The reason for the dispute was threefold. Mismanagement of the mission had caused terrible publicity, financial mismanagement and lack of research. People [ who? Five panes of glass were also broken. Alling later told the Chicago Tribune that she "considered the Biosphere to be in an emergency state In no way was it sabotage. It was my responsibility.

They arrived with a temporary restraining order to take over direct control of the project With them were police officers hired by the Bass organization They immediately changed locks on the offices All communication systems were changed telephone and access codes , and [we] were prevented from receiving any data regarding safety, operations, and research of Biosphere 2.

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